This dissertation was implemented during an internship at the company. This is a young edible landscaping company, established in 2015, a graduate of the specialty. I helped him in his work on rich and diverse projects, from concept to implementation. This company promotes the growth of edible vegetables in the city. Although most customers are individuals, the company sometimes works with associations or communities. Thus, edible landscapes are part of a network that creates tomorrow’s urban environment. It was in this context that I wanted to make this last dissertation. It seems to me that the surplus food provided by this landscape is an interesting and relevant way to address urban and public issues.
In just a century, the proportion of the world’s population living in cities has increased from one tenth to more than one second. In parallel, the world’s population is increasing significantly. Although the frequency of urbanization is not uniform globally, the problems caused by this urban growth are the same. It is legitimate to question the consequences: urban sprawl at the expense of agricultural land, increased flows that contribute to air pollution, increased social inequality, and access to quality food and water.
Indeed, certain social changes are taking place and the way of life in the city is being called into question. In developed countries, more and more ecological neighborhood projects come to life, such as edible garden and edible plants. Urban planners rethink travel (soft transport network), facilitate interaction between residents, architects integrate more efficient materials into buildings and develop smart buildings.
Among these innovations are urban agriculture and edible landscaping, more generally, the reappearance of urban edible landscapes that are of growing interest. The city is often criticized by city dwellers as being too mineral a space whose ties with the rural world are lost. The contribution of vegetation in the city and the importance of the edible aspect are apparently a way to recreate these connections, meeting the expectations of society. this memory is translated by the following problematic question: how can a rethinking of a city with the help of an edible landscape make up elements of answers to modern city rates? The interest of urban residents in these landscapes in the city in some way indicates the emergence of new public expectations. The appearance and development of these landscapes raises a number of questions, in particular, about the participation of actors and their motivation in creating these spaces.
Some of the answers can probably be obtained by focusing on defining an urban edible landscape. But what forms do these edible spaces take? Why edible and not decorative places? The urban environment is a dynamic place and a source of many interactions. How do they fit into urban metabolism? What is the impact on the city and the townspeople? To try to provide answers to common problematic questions, the argument is based on an analysis of the scientific literature.
Urban edible landscape consists of two inextricable parts. The first concerns the landscape, and the second urbanism. This is an interdisciplinary field, including social, economic, agronomic, environmental and urban sciences. In order to study this landscape, it seems appropriate to analyze the studies that were carried out directly on this topic and compare them with other specific works related to one of the disciplines mentioned above. This work then takes the form of a bibliographic synthesis that encompasses various forms of information. Statistical data, evidence, field observations, collections, collection of works and notes of scientific colloquiums. Thus, the analysis is based on a wide range of articles in order to assess the impact of this landscape on the urban environment, measure constraints and identify ways to improve. Regarding the progress of the analysis, the argument must first be contextualized.
First, after defining an edible urban landscape, a retrospective of its origin to this day will be presented. He will follow the characteristics of his forms and types of participating entities, as well as a consideration of the urban edible landscape in the eyes of society. Subsequently, we will evaluate the impact of this landscape on the urban environment and its consequences for the challenges of the modern city, as well as call into question the limits of its participation. Finally, we will explore areas of improvement that we would like to deepen in the future in order to ensure the sustainable inclusion of these landscapes in the urban environment of the future.